The standard library math package implements basic mathematical functionality, in particular trig and log functions.
The math package implements the Math API.
The intel32 math package source code is in src/lib/std/src/math64-intel32.pkg which gets pulled into several places, notably float64_guts in src/lib/std/src/eight-byte-float-guts.pkg which gets proxied as float64 in src/lib/std/eight-byte-float.pkg which gets proxied as (e.g.) float and large_float in src/lib/std/types-only/bind-largest32.pkg.
The above information is manually maintained and may contain errors.